First International Conference on Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly and Gorham–Stout Syndrome

Dellinger et al., 2013. IBMS BoneKEy 10; Article number:476.




Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis: A Distinct Aggressive Lymphatic Anomaly

Croteau et al., 2014. J Pediatr 164;383-388.


Viewpoints on vessels and vanishing bones in Gorham-Stout disease.

Dellinger et al., 2014. Bone 63;47-52.


Pulmonary Lymphangiectasia Resulting from Vegf-C Overexpression During a Critical Period.

Yao et al., 2014. Circ Res 114;806-822.




Caution is recommended prior to sildenafil use in vascular anomalies.

Rankin et al., 2015. Pediatr Blood Cancer 62;2015-2017.


Near-Infrared Fluorescence Lymphatic Imaging in Lymphangiomatosis.

Rasmussen et al., 2015. Lymphat Res Biol 13;195-201.




Pulmonary and pleural lymphatic endothelial cells from pediatric, but not adult, patients with Gorham-Stout disease and generalized lymphatic anomaly, show a high proliferation rate.

Mori et al., 2016. Orphanet J Rare Dis.11:67.


Meeting report for the 2016 conference on GLA and Gorham-Stout disease

Iacobas et al., 2016. IBMS BoneKEy.


A New Case and Review of Chylothorax in Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly and Gorham-Stout Disease.

Ludwig et al., 2016. Lymphology. 49;73-84.




Rapamycin reversal of VEGF-C-driven lymphatic anomalies in the respiratory tract.

Baluk et al., 2017. JCI Insight. 2017 Aug 17;2(16). pii: 90103


Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Produce M-CSF, Causing Massive Bone Loss in Mice.

Wang et al., 2017. J Bone Miner Res. 32;939-950.


Angiopoietins as serum biomarkers for lymphatic anomalies.

Le Cras et al., 2017. Angiogenesis. 20;163-173.




VEGF-C promotes the development of lymphatics in bone and bone loss.

Hominick et al., 2018. eLife 2018;7:e34323




Somatic activating mutations in PIK3CA cause generalized lymphatic anomaly.

Rodriguez-Laguna et al., 2019 Journal of Experimental Medicine. 216;407-418.


Signaling pathways and inhibitors of cells from patients with kaposiform lymphangiomatosis. 

Boscolo et al., 2019. Pediatr Blood Cancer. Aug;66(8):e27790.




Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis treated with multimodal therapy improves coagulopathy and reduces blood angiopoietin-2 levels.

Crane J, et al., 2020. Pediatr Blood Cancer. Jul 7:e28529.


Constitutively active PIK3CA mutations are expressed by lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells in capillary lymphatic venous malformation.

Le Cras et al., 2020. Angiogenesis. 23;425-442.


Lymphatics in bone arise from pre-existing lymphatics.

Monroy et al., 2020. Development. 2020 Apr 20;147(21):dev184291.


Multidisciplinary guidelines for initial evaluation of complicated lymphatic anomalies-expert opinion consensus.

Iacobas et al., 2020. Pediatr Blood Cancer. Jan;67(1):e28036.


Abnormal Pulmonary Lymphatic Flow in Patients With Lymphatic Anomalies and Respiratory Compromise.

Itkin et al., 2020. Chest. Mar 24:S0012-3692(20)30474-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2020.02.058. PMID: 32220591